||Allium, Clove Garlic, Devil's Posy, Onion Stinkers, Poor Man's Treacle, Stinking Jenny, Stinking Rose
||Allium sativum syn. A. controversum
||Rich, well-drained soil in full sun. Allium schoenoprasum tolerates wetter conditions, heavier soil, and a less open position than most other alliums. Allium atricoccum and A. ursinum prefer moist soil in shade. Allium fistulosum may be hilled up, like leeks, to produce blanched stems. Cut A. schoenoprasum down to the ground after flowering to produce fresh leaves. Onion maggot is common in some countries on light soils; downy mildew is prevalent in wet weather; rots may effect both growing and stored bulbs. Onions, garlic, and chives are often recommended in companion planting to deter pests, weeds, and diseases, though both are reputed to affect legumes adversely.
||By seed sown in spring; by bulbils planted in autumn or spring (A. ampeloprasum). By seed sown in autumn or spring, or by "sets" (small bulbs), planted in spring (A.cepa). Sowing and planting of cultivars of A. cepa vary widely in different climates. By seed sown in succession in spring for summer use, and in summer for autumn and spring use (A. fistulosum). By bulbs or individual cloves planted in autumn or winter (A. sativum). By seed sown in spring; by bulbs planted when dormant (A. tricoccum, A ursinum).
||Allium ampeloprasum, A. cepa, and A. sativum are harvested in late summer and early autumn. Allium cepa and A. sativum are left to dry in the sun before being stored at 3-5°C (37-41°F). Allium fistulosum is pulled when the stems are pencil thick, or left until leek-sized, and used fresh or quickly cooked. Allium schoenoprasum is cut as needed in the growing season. It is best used fresh or finely chopped and frozen. Allium triccocum, A. tuberosum, and A. ursinum are gathered to be used fresh. Allium tuberosum is blanched in China using clay pots or straw "tents" to give tender leaves that are eaten raw in finger-length pieces.
Is a hardneck type with large, brown-purple bulbs, containing 10 cloves, rich and complex in flavor.
||One of the greatest and oldest medicinal and culinary herbs, garlic has for thousands of years enjoyed an esteemed place in both Western and Eastern herbal medicine and in almost all cuisines. No other herb can rival garlic's long and colorful history or the astonishing array of facts and fantasies that surround its use. Vampires flee at the sight of it; pesky garden moles leap into the air when confronted with it; sailors who pocket a clove of garlic will never be shipwrecked; people who rub their noses and lips with it are protected from sunstroke; unwanted lovers can be banished with it; athletes, soldiers, laborers, racehorses, and even fighting cocks all outdo themselves in their fields of endeavor when they eat garlic beforehand.
The ancient Muslims believed "the devil did it" when it came to garlic. According to one of their legends, when Satan stepped into the world (after he was banished from Paradise), garlic sprung up where his left foot landed and onion where his right foot fell. Ironically, there's a dash of truth in this fantasy; Garlic's main chemical ingredient is a form of sulfur, the odoriferous gas that myth tells us heralds Beelzebub's presence. The ancient Egyptians regarded garlic more pragmatically. The laborers building the great pyramids at Cheops and Giza were fed garlic cloves daily to build their strength and endurance. At Giza, the amount of garlic used and its cost were engraved on one of the pyramid's walls.
Through the centuries, garlic has inspired both love (for its medicinal and magical powers and culinary uses) and hate (for its lingering smell and the extraordinarily bad breath it causes). By the seventeenth century, the esteemed herbalist Nicholas Culpeper was beside himself about garlic, believing that it did as much harm as good, and he angrily advised that it was "a remedy for all disease and hurts (except those which itself breeds)." Thankfully, Culpeper was wrong: Garlic is amazingly good for you and rarely does any harm.
||Bulbs (da suan), Oil, dried or fresh bulb.
||A pungent, warming herb that wards off or clears bacterial infection, lowers fever by increasing perspiration, reduces blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels, and is expectorant. Regarded as rejuvenative, detoxicant, and aphrodisiac in Ayurveda.
||Internally to prevent infection and to treat colds, influenza, bronchitis, whooping cough, gastroenteritis, and dysentery. Externally for skin problems, especially acne, and fungal infections. In addition to these traditional uses, garlic has recently been found to reduce glucose metabolism in diabetes, slow the development of arteriosclerosis, and lower the risk of further heart attacks in myocardial infarct patients. It is taken raw (crushed or as a juice), as a syrup or tincture, or in capsules.
To treat elevated cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, menstrual pains, diabetes, whooping cough, bronchitis, warts, corns, calluses, muscle pain, and arthritis. Germany's Commission E has approved the use of garlic to treat arteriosclerosis, elevated blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels.
Traditionally, garlic was (and still is) used to treat colds, coughs, and flu. In the last 20 years, however, research into garlic's chemical make-up has revealed that it is one of the "super" herbs, with multiple healing actions. In study after study, garlic appears to have all these properties: antibiotic, antioxidant, anticancer, blood thinning, cholesterol lowering, blood pressure reducing, and immune stimulating. It also acts as a general health-boosting tonic that can be taken preventatively. Allicin, a potent sulfur compound that is garlic's primary chemical ingredient, is responsible for much of the herb's therapeutic actions. Garlic is also rich in the A, B, and C vitamins.
Garlic is most frequently used as a weapon against heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Besides lowering both high cholesterol and high blood pressure, garlic also detoxifies and thins the blood, helping to prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Garlic also supports the liver and kidneys in removing toxins from the blood.
As an anticancer agent, garlic works on two levels. First, it inhibits the growth of specific cancer cells. For example, it has been successfully used to treat stomach cancer and appears to have real potential for inhibiting the development of breast, colon, and throat cancers. Second, as a powerful antioxidant, garlic helps neutralize the precancerous, cell-damaging effects of many pollutants and toxins.
As an infection fighter, garlic is a powerful and broad-based antibiotic, used successfully to treat cholera, dysentery, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and typhoid—for which it is more effective than penicillin. (Allicin, its main chemical ingredient, is sometimes used in injections to treat bacterial infections.) And garlic still helps speed recovery from colds and flu.
||Garlic is available as fresh bulbs and cloves, in tinctures and in odorless tablets. When using commercially prepared garlic, follow the manufacturer's or your practitioner's directions. To make your own garlic health tonic: Mix 1 cup of finely crushed cloves with 1 quart of brandy in a glass container with a cover. Shake the mixture daily for two weeks before using. Then take up to 3 tablespoons a day as a daily tonic.
||A typical daily dose of garlic is approximately 4 gm of the fresh herb, 8 mg of essential oil, or 1/2 to 3 fresh garlic cloves.
||No serious side effects are associated with taking garlic, but some sensitive people may develop an allergic rash after handling or eating the herb. If you are pregnant, talk with your practitioner before taking garlic medicinally. Garlic contains a chemical that impedes blood clotting. If you have a blood-clotting disorder, consult with your practitioner before taking garlic.
|Possible Side Effects:
||Garlic's side effects include breath and body odor, irritation of the mouth and/or gastrointestinal tract, heartburn, flatulence, and nausea.
|Taking garlic with these drugs may increase the risk of bleeding or bruising:
||Acemetacin, (Acemetacin Heumann, Acemetacin Sandoz)
||Alteplase, (Activase, Cathflo Activase)
||Antithrombin III, (Thrombate III)
||Aspirin, (Bufferin, Ecotrin)
||Aspirin and Dipyridamole, (Aggrenox)
||Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate, (Trilisate)
||Choline Salicylate, (Teejel)
||Diclofenac, (Cataflam, Voltaren)
||Diflunisal, (Apo-Diflunisal, Dolobid)
|Dipyridamole, (Novo-Dipiradol, Persantine)
||Dipyrone, (Analgina, Dinador)
||Drotrecogin Alfa, (Xigris)
||Etodolac, (Lodine, Utradol)
|Flurbiprofen, (Ansaid, Ocufen)
||Heparin, (Hepalean, Hep-Lock)
||Hydrocodone and Aspirin, (Damason-P)
|Hydrocodone and Ibuprofen, (Vicoprofen)
||Ibuprofen, (Advil, Motrin)
|Indomethacin, (Indocin, Novo-Methacin)
||Ketoprofen, (Orudis, Rhodis)
||Ketorolac, (Acular, Toradol)
|Magnesium Salicylate, (Doan's, Mobidin)
||Mefenamic Acid, (Ponstan, Ponstel)
||Meloxicam, (MOBIC, Mobicox)
|Nabumetone, (Apo-Nabumetone, Relafen)
||Naproxen, (Aleve, Naprosyn)
||Niflumic Acid, (Niflam, Nifluril)
|Nimesulide, (Areuma, Aulin)
||Oxaprozin, (Apo-Oxaprozin, Daypro)
||Piroxicam, (Feldene, Nu-Pirox)
||Salsalate, (Amgesic, Salflex)
||Sulindac, (Clinoril, Nu-Sundac)
||Tenoxicam, (Dolmen, Mobiflex)
||Tiaprofenic Acid, (Dom-Tiaprofenic, Surgam)
||Ticlopidine, (Alti-Ticlopidine, Ticlid)
||Warfarin, (Coumadin, Jantoven)
|Taking garlic with these drugs may increase the risk of hypotension (excessively low blood pressure):
||Atenolol, (Apo-Atenol, Tenormin)
||Betaxolol, (Betoptic S, Kerlone)
|Bisoprolol, (Monocor, Zebeta)
||Bumetanide, (Bumex, Burinex)
||Captopril, (Capoten, Novo-Captopril)
||Carteolol, (Cartrol, Ocupress)
||Diltiazem, (Cardizem, Tiazac)
||Doxazosin, (Alti-Doxazosin, Cardura)
||Felodipine, (Plendil, Renedil)
||Hydralazine, (Apresoline, Novo-Hylazin)
||Hydrochlorothiazide, (Apo-Hydro, Microzide)
||Indapamide, (Lozol, Nu-Indapamide)
||Labetolol, (Normodyne, Trandate)
||Lisinopril, (Prinivil, Zestril)
||Lopinavir and Ritonavir, (Kaletra)
||Metolazone, (Mykrox, Zaroxolyn)
||Metoprolol, (Betaloc, Lopressor)
||Nadolol, (Apo-Nadol, Corgard)
||Nifedipine, (Adalat CC, Procardia)
|Perindopril Erbumine, (Aceon, Coversyl)
||Prazosin, (Minipress, Nu-Prazo)
||Propranolol, (Inderal, InnoPran XL)
||Terazosin, (Hytrin, Novo-Terazosin)
||Verapamil, (Calan, Isoptin SR)
|Taking garlic with these drugs may increase the risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar):
|Acarbose, (Prandase, Precose)
||Chlorpropamide, (Diabinese, Novo-Propamide)
|Gliclazide, (Diamicron, Novo-Gliclazide)
|Glipizide and Metformin, (Metaglip)
||Gliquidone, (Beglynor, Glurenorm)
||Glyburide, (DiaBeta, Micronase)
|Glyburide and Metformin, (Glucovance)
||Insulin, (Humulin, Novolin R)
||Metformin, (Glucophage, Riomet)
|Repaglinide, (GlucoNorm, Prandin)
||Rosiglitazone and Metformin, (Avandamet)
||Tolbutamide, (Apo-Tolbutamide, Tol-Tab)
|Taking garlic with these drugs may exacerbate hypertension (high blood pressure):
||Furosemide, (Apo-Furosemide, Lasix)
|Taking garlic with these drugs may reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of the drug:
||Lopinavir and Ritonavir, (Kaletra)
||Saquinavir, (Fortovase, Invirase)
|Taking garlic with these drugs may cause severe gastrointestinal toxicity:
||Lopinavir and Ritonavir, (Kaletra)
||Saquinavir, (Fortovase, Invirase)
|Lab Test Alterations:
- May decrease serum cholesterol, LDL "bad" cholesterol, triglycerides, blood lipid profile.
- May decrease platelet aggregation.
- May increase prothrombin time (PT) and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE).
- May increase plasma international normalized ratio (INR) in those who are also taking warfarin.
- May decrease blood pressure.
- May elevate ALMA (S-allyl-mercapturic acid) levels in urine or cause false positive in ALMA determination.
- May worsen cases of bleeding disorders by encouraging bleeding.
- May worsen gastrointestinal ailments by irritating the gastrointestinal tract.
- Decreased absorption of garlic when taken with acidophilus.
- Increased risk of bleeding when used with herb and supplements that might affect platelet aggregation.
- Increased antithrombic effects when taken with fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]).
- Increased risk of bleeding when garlic is taken with forskolin.
||Garlic enhances the flavor of most meats, seafood, and many vegetables. It is an essential ingredient of regional dishes in many parts of the world, notably in S Europe, the Middle East, the Far East, the West Indies, Mexico, and S America. Raw garlic predominates in sauces such as aïoli (Spain and S France), and skordaliá (Greece), and is added as a condiment to butter, oil, vinegar and salt. Bulbs are baked or roasted whole to produce a creamy, more subtle flavoring; also added to meats during roasting. Young leaves, flower stalks, and flowers taste milder than the bulbs.
||Encyclopedia of Herbs by Deni Brown. Copyright © 1995, 2001 Dorling Kindersley Limited. pp 111, 113-114
The Essential Herb-Drug-Vitamin Interaction Guide by Geo. T. Grosberg,MD and Barry Fox,PhD. Copyright©2007 Barry Fox,PhD. 231-234
The Modern Herbal Primer by Nancy Burke Copyright©2000 Yankee Publishing, Inc. pp.61-63.